Hormone Replacement Therapy
Glossary of terminology
AdenosineTriphosphate (ATP): The primary building blocks of life used by thecells for them to operate and create reactions that can support life.
Adrenals:These are the glands that are known to produce hormones linked tostress. Some of the hormones produced include andadrenaline, cortisoland DHEA.
AdrenocortiotrophicHormone (ACTH): This will facilitate the production of cortisol andDHEA through its interaction with the adrenal gland receptors.Released through the pituitary glands, this can signal specific cellsin the adrenal glands using the cyclic AMP.
AdvancedGlycosylation Endproduct: These are known to cross link with glucose.When the AGE will stick to the capillaries and arteries, there willbe an increased risk for kidney problems, blindness and even heartproblems. One can estimate its level through a blood test byverifying the level of glycosylated hemoglobin.
AerobicCapacity: Considered as the capacity to produce oxygen. The levelsproduced are influenced by the size of the capillary, rate of pumpingin the heart, capacity of the lungs and also the rate in which oxygenis transferred from the red blood cells into some of the tissues ofthe body.
AerobicExercise: The intent of this exercise it to deliver the right amountof oxygen to the muscle cells without lactic acid build-up. This isrecommended for persons who want to lower the levels of glucose andinsulin.
Aging:The expected decline in the quality of the personâaos body as heages.
AminoAcids: Recommended parts of the diet since protein are producedthrough these. There are eight important amino acids.
Amygdala:This is that part of the brain that comes up with emotions.
AnaerobicExercise: As opposed to aerobic exercise, this will lead to thedevelopment of lactic acid. This will help facilitate the developmentof growth hormone and can also promote the synthesis of testosterone.
AnabolicSteroids: These facilitate the development of muscles and lessen theeffects of virilization of testosterone.
Anti-agingZone Lifestyle Pyramid: Through this, the four pillars of aging arereduced. These four pillars include insulin, blood glucose, cortisoland free radicals. To make this happen the pyramid will includecertain physical activities, zone diet and meditation. Of the manycomponents, the zone diet is considered the major component.
ArachidonicAcid: considered as the immediate precursor to unhealthy eicosanoids.This fatty acid is normally found in organ meats, egg yolks and evenfatty red meat.
AutocrineHormones: These are used to test the environment that surrounds acell. Good example is the Eicosanoid.
BenignProstatic Hypertrophy (BPH): considered as the normal enlargement ofthe prostrate tissue of a man as he grows old. There are someinstances when urinating will be made difficult because of this.
BindingProteins: Binds with water-soluble hormones including sex hormonesand cortisol. Also will bind naturally to insulin growth factor andin the process helps manage the right levels of hormones found on thepersonâaos blood stream.
BiologicalMarker of Aging: These are the accepted physiological markers thatappear in almost all persons who age.
BiologicalResponse Modifier: Molecules that can change how the cells canrespond to the environment around it.
BloodGlucose: The brain takes much of its energy from the blood glucose.If this is found to be at higher levels, it can lead to diabetes andaging takes on a faster rate.
CalciumOxalate Kidney Stones: This is a type of stone that may develop inthe personâaos kidneys. These stones canâaot be dissolved easily andit will take an x-ray check for the doctor to confirm its presence.
CalorieRestriction: way of reducing the calorie amount that can help in themaintenance of the right levels of essential fats and proteins. Thiscan also offer the body with the right amount of minerals andvitamins.
Corticotropin-ReleasingHormone (CRH): It is the main player in the production of the ACTH.To produce this, it will need to interact with the pituitary gland.Traversed from the hypothalamus, this will use the cyclic AMP.
Cortisol:When thereâaos stress or the level of blood glucose is low, cortisolis produced by the adrenal glands. If a person is stressed, the bodywill stop the synthesis of eicosanoid.
CyclicAMP: Commonly referred to as the second messenger used to start off anumber of biological procedures. This is known to be sourced from theATP. The endocrine hormones are known to use this.
CyclicGMP: Considered as the secondary hormone that can help jumpstartbiological procedures started by the hormone. This is induced by thenitric oxide compound.
Dehdroepiandrosterone(DHEA): This helps to prevent cortisol from binding in the body.Another form of steroid hormone sourced from the glands named adrenalglands.
Diabetes:This develops when the production of the blood-glucose canâaot becontrolled. There are two types, Type I and II. For Type 1, there isno insulin production. For Type II, thereâaos an over production ofit (insulin).
Dopamine:A neurotransmitter that operates with the serotonin.
Eicosanoid:Produced from every cell of the body, this is made frompolyunsaturated fat and 20 carbon compound atom. This is regularlyproduced by each cell of the body in order to test the surroundenvironment. Also, Goodeicosanoids produce AMP.
EndocrineHormones: These are usually found in the gland that is discrete glandand moves on the blood stream to reach body tissues.
Endocrinology:It is the science of hormones and how hormones and biologicalprocedures operate.
Endocytosis: A process wherein the extra cellular molecules will join a cell inthe body.
EndothelialCells: These can be found on the system called vascular system andserves as a barrier between cells and blood stream. Hormones areexpected to pass through the barriers to get to the receptors tostart the biological processes.
B-Endorphin:Its release from pituitary gland will help alleviate the pain. Torelease the B-lipotropin, the cyclic AMP is needed.
EssentialFatty Acids: Essential fatty acids should be element of the dailydiet since the body cannot produce these naturally. Two fatty acidsthat are important include the omega-3 and the omega-6 that can helpproduce eicosanoids compound.
ErectileDysfunction (ED): Simply called ED, this is the lack of ability ofthe male to sustain an erect penis during sexual intercourse.
Estrogens:These are the three groups of steroid hormones to carry the femaleattributes and to manage the fertilization. These are stimulated bythe hormone named âaufollicle-stimulatingâau and also make use of thecyclic AMP.
Exocytosis:The procedure in which intra cellular chemicals are freed.
Follicle-StimulatingHormone (FSH): Once traversed from the gland named pituitary thiswill help in the production of estrogens and sperms. This makes useof the cyclic AMP.
FreeRadical: When a molecule contains the unpaired electron then itâaoscalled a free radical. This can act on other bio-molecules to formfree radicals more.
Functionality:It is the capability to live without assistance.
Gland:This is where your hormones are secreted. There are different glandsthat are found in different parts of the body including the brain, inthe area of throat, in the personâaos mid section and one can befound in the area of gonad. The gland for female is the ovary andtestes for the male.
Glucagon:This helps in the restoration of the blood glucose levels. This issourced from the areas of pancreas and acts on the carbohydratesfound in liver. To start its biological process this will need thecyclic AMP.
Glucose:It is the simple carbohydrate flowing in the personâaos blood streamand also is the major fuel for the brain. This is also in the musclesand liver as your glycogen compound.
rance: This will refer to the capacity of the liver and musclecells to take out glucose from blood stream. It is expected that thetolerance will eventually decrease as the person ages.
GlycemicIndex: Used as a measure to tell how fast the carbohydrate will joinbloodstream in the form of glucose. Not all carbohydrates can jointhe bloodstream at similar rates. For example, table sugar is knownto join the blood stream slower if you compare it to othercarbohydrates like potatoes and rice. Higher glycemic index meansthat the carbohydrate will join the bloodstream at a faster rate andthis will mean increase in the level of insulin. Lower glycemic indexcan be linked to fruits and vegetables.
Glycogen: Glucose in its stored form. The liver is the source of glycogen thatcould be used for managing the levels of glucose in the body.
GlycosylatedHemoglobin: This is the management of the blood glucose which willdepend on the percentage of hemoglobin that is carbohydrate-modifiedthat can be found in the blood cells that are red. GlycosylatedHemoglobin in higher level will mean that control of the bloodglucose will be at its worst.
GrowthHormone: This will help release the fatty acids and help in theproduction of insulin-related growth hormones. To help release thefatty acids, it needs to be move from the pituitary gland and shouldact with fat cells.
GrowthHormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH): This will cause for the emission ofthe growth hormone of the pituitary gland. Released from thehypothalamus, this will need the cyclic structured AMP as itssecondary messenger.
Hematuria:A condition wherein red colored blood cells can be found in theurine. This is linked to a number of diseases and conditionsincluding kidney stones, kidney disease, urinary tract cancer andeven UTI. Tests like x-ray and CT scan are normally used to check thecondition.
HighDensity Lipoprotein (HDL): Considered as healthy cholesterol thatallows the lipid-like cholesterol to be moved to the water-basedblood stream and take it out from the cells. The level of HDL willnormally go down when insulin is up.
Hippocampus:A major component of the brain that belongs to limbic system andplays important role in integrating incoming nerve impulsion to thearea of hypothalamus. It is the main memory center too orstorage area of brain.
Hormones: Compounds that send out messages and information. Thereare specific receptors required for the hormones for beginning oftheir biological processes and uses secondary messengers to startcellular process, which depends on the same data.
Hormonaltherapy: One of the major therapeutic methods of medicaltreatment for cancer. This therapy is regarding the matter thatcells of prostate cancer frequently use male hormones (liketestosterone) using as fertilizer as well as the deficiency oftestosterone turns into the elimination (apoptosis) of some cells ofprostate cancer. Consequently, the use of hormonal therapyhelps many patients having untreatable prostate cancer especially inthe Stage D and the late Stage C of improving their superiority oflife and extending their lives.
HormoneReleasing Factors: These are hormones whose main purpose is tocontrol the emission of the other hormones secreted by thehypothalamus into bloodstream that directly affect the pituitary. Cyclic AMP is used as their second messengers by many hormonereleasing factors.
Hyperinsulinemia: This is a term of condition where there are excessive levels ofmoving insulin in blood. This is generally a result of resistance ofinsulin where the cells are unresponsive to insulin that lower ordecrease the levels of blood glucose.
Hypothalamus:A part of the brainâaos structure that contains a number of smallnuclei that synthesizes and acts on information and manages thedischarge of some hormones that push the pituitary to send outhormones.
Incontinence: This is referred to as uncontrollable urination. This normallyhappens in babies but in time they can control the urge to urinate.Different people will experience different kinds of pain andinconvenience but the good news is that this issue can be welltreated.
Insulin:It is a hormone that is central to regulating and incoming drivingnutrients to the cells for the storage in the body. Aging is alsolinked to insulin.
Insulin-likeGrowth Factor (IGF): These are polypeptides or hormones dischargedfrom liver in reaction to the growth hormone. It is IGF-1 which is ahormone mainly secreted by the liver as a result of stimulation bygrowth hormone that is responsible for normal physiology and buildingmuscle.
InsulinResistance: It is a condition, briefly said physiological conditionwhen the cells are no longer responding appropriately to insulin. Thenatural insulin loses efficiency at lowering the blood sugars inwhich the body emits more insulin to bloodstream.
Impotence: A sexual dysfunction in which a man cannot maintain erection of hispenis that can formalize a sexual engagement. Factors that cause thiscondition can be stress with psychological factors; though, it isreported that this sexual problem is primarily linked to a number ofhealth problems including heart problems and issues.
InterstitialSpace: It is the space that is between endothelial and targetcells.
IntravenousPyelogram (IVP): This is a procedure where dye of iodine isintroduced into the many veins of the arms. The dye travels throughthe body and is absorbed well by kidneys and goes out into bladder.The x-ray test could identify abnormalities of the urinary tract liketumors of kidney, bladder, and ureter. Kidney stones may be diagnosedby this procedure as well.
LeanBody Mass: Total fat-free mass or bodyweight of the body. Lean bodymass have of all its components like water, collagen, bones, andmuscle except neutral storage lipid.
LifeExpectancy: It is the average longevity of life or age when 50% ofnewborn babies will live.
LimbicSystem: An area in the brain tasked with the more primitivereactions and also facilitates the biological homeostasis.
Longevity:The duration or part of maximum lifetime expectancy that a case oforganism will occur before death.
LuteinizingHormone (LH): Hormone that is essential in reproduction. It issecreted from the pituitary, which is the cause stimulation of theproduction of the testosterone (males) and production of theprogesterone (females). Its second ranked messenger is the cyclicAMP.
KidneyStones: These are tiny crystals formed in the tubal system of thekidney. These crystals meet and cling together to create a largersolid mass. It grows in kidneys and after that moves in the path ofurinary tract. These can also grow in the bladder. In many cases,stone production can be linked to urinary blockage that is chronic innature or infection, or various protein starvation normal indeveloping countries. Stones can also grow in the prostrate due toinfection. There are different kinds of stones that develop inpeople and the most popular are the calcium oxalate. The problem withthese stones is that they canâaot be seen by the eye.
Macronutrient: Top examples of this are the carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Thisoffers most of the energy that can help comes up with hormoneresponses.
MaximumLife Span: This is the longest time that an organism is expected tolive.
Melatonin: Considered as an antioxidant and released by the gland named pineal.This is also known to control and manage the circadian rhythms andother biological procedures.
Micronutrient: Highly recommended for humans in order to facilitate a number ofbiological processes. Some top examples include minerals and vitaminsthat will not have impacts on the hormonal responses.
MortalityDoubling Time: Time amount that may be required because of the rateof death to grow two-fold after reaching adult age.
lled nitrogen monoxide, this will help produce cyclic GMPthat can help relax the smooth muscle tissues. This is also called asa specimen of free radical and prohormone.
Omega-3Fatty Acids: Can be sourced from fishes of cold water or from fishoils. It is said that these fatty acids are best for the heart.
Omega-6Fatty Acids: Another example of the fatty acids (polyunsaturated)that can be sourced from seed oils or vegetables. Both bad and goodeicosanoids can be sourced from this type of fatty acid.
PenileProsthesis: This is an implant that is inserted into chambers of thepenis as a way to address the Peyronieâaos Disease. Patient doesnâaotneed to stay for long in the hospital.
PercentageBody Fat: The amount of fat in relation to the whole body weight. Ifthe percentage body fat is considered high then thereâaos a higherrisk for certain diseases like diabetes and heart diseases.
Peyronie’sDisease: This will happen if thereâaos a sustained injury in the wallof the penile chamber or may happen for no reason at all. The tissueif left unattended can deform the penis which can result in bending.The scar that can be formed in a PD can shorten the size or may helpprevent future erections.
Pineal:This is the part of the brain that acts and produces melatonin.
Pituitary:This is the main gland that releases most of the hormones into thepersonâaos blood stream. Some of the hormones that are released bythis gland include the ACTH, B-lipocortin, growth hormone, FSH and soon.
Priapism:This happens when the erection goes for a long period of time andwill not naturally end. This is liked to a penis injection therapywhere the stiffness can happen for the next four hours. Also, expertssay that this is linked to sickle cell anemia and may also occurafter a person takes Trazodone.
Progesterone:This is generated to respond to the production of luteinizing hormone(LH) that comes from the pituitary gland. This is the hormone thatwill flush out the personâaos uterus once the egg is not fertilized.Also used for helping grow the new bone mass.
Progestins:These will take the characteristics of the natural progesterone.
PSABlood Test: This will stand for Prostatic Specific Antigen and usedto validate prostate cancer. Once elevated, then itâaos oneindication of the cancer.
ProstateGland: The small gland that is located at the base of the personâaosbladder. The nutrients that are produced here are used to support thegrowth of the sperm. The prostate gland may enlarge as the persongrows old and may cause difficulty in urination and may even lead toprostate cancer.
Prostatitis:This is a common problem of the prostate gland that may beexperienced by a man at any point of his life. The disease can bechronic, allergic and acute and sometimes it has been reported thatthis can be psychosomatic as well. Though this condition is not lifethreatening, still the feeling is unpleasant to the person. Do keepin mind that prostate cancer and this condition are not one and thesame. Also this condition will not lead to cancer. You will findthree general types of this condition called the bacterialprostatitis, non-bacterial or inflammatory prostatitis and chronicpain in the prostate as a type of non-bacterial prostatitis.
Receptor:It identifies a unique hormone. The moment a hormone binds with this,information carried by the hormone can start a biological process.
SecondMessenger: These are the molecules that will help start a number ofbiological processes of the hormones.
SemenAnalysis: This will refer to the testing of the sperm and seminalfluid. This is the kind of test where the amount of sperm is checked,the acidity and its volume. Also, through this test the infectionwill be verified.
SeminalVesicles: These are the seminal vesical sacts found just behind theprostate that will all the fluids generated by the gland. The fluidis the same seminal fluid ejected by the male when he becomessexually engaged. This is the same fluid that will nourish the sperm.
Serotonin:This will help filter out information. If the level of the neurotransmitter is low, then this will cause for violence or depressionin the person.
StruviteKidney Stones: All stones are formed from different kinds ofmolecules. Examples are the Struvite Kidney Stones that are usuallylinked to urinary infection and the main signs that are checked inpersons with UTI or urinary tract infection. These stones are onlyvisible through the x-ray. During its early stages of development thebladder symptoms may be observed and the development of these stoneswill not be checked thus may destroy the kidneys in the process.
Telomer:A part of the nuclear DNA that comes shorter when the DNA replicates.Once the certain length of the segment has been reached, the DNA willno longer replicate.
Testosterone:This helps in the buildup of libido for both men and women and canalso help in the build-up of muscle mass.
Thymus:The main producer of the T-lymphocytes, examples of white cells thatcan help build the immune capability of the body. This gland may beaffected by excessive amount of cortisol.
Thyroid:Found on the throat, the gland acts on the thyroid hormones which inturn influence the personâaos metabolism.
Thyroid-ReleasingHormone (TRH): This will instruct the pituitary gland to come up withTSH.
Thyroid-StimulatingHormone (TSH): This is the hormone that helps the thyroid gland comeup with T4. To synthesize the T4, the AMP will be used as thesecondary cyclic AMP.
TransRectal Ultrasound (TRUS): This is a special type of test wherein aprobe will be used include the rectum in order to generate ultrasoundpictures of the prostate gland. This test is not as reliable as theProstatic Specific Antigen. This is non-diagnostic though this canhelp in directing biopsies. Through this test, the attending doctorscan learn more about the shape and size of the prostate and to verifyif the cancer has spread. But this is not normally used to verify ifindeed the cancer is already present. This is done as a complement toa biopsy.
Triglycerides(TG): Fat that can be found in many lipoproteins of the blood stream.If thereâaos a high level of insulin then thereâaos a chance thatthereâaos a high level of Triglycerides. The level of TG and HDL isindicative of the risk for potential heart problems.
Type2 Diabetes: This happens when insulin is produced in greater numbersand associated with the production of AGE. This is also linked todecrease in lifespan.
T3:Synthesized in the peripheral tissue and considered as another formof T4.
T4: Another hormone released by the thyroid gland produced as a responseto TSH and also produces the cyclic AMP.
UricAcid Kidney Stones: Kidney stones are normally crystal molecules orcan be formed by combining with other elements. Common examples ofthese stones are the Uric Acid Kidney Stones which are common topeople suffering from gout or high in uric acid. Just like otherstones, these canâaot be checked through the naked eye. Doctors mayneed x-ray or other tests like IVP, spiral CT scansorsonography.The development of these stones can be hereditary and may beinfluenced by a meat-rich diet. This can be addressed medically.
VentromedialNucleus (VMN): Found in the hypothalamus that can be influenced bytoo much glucose.
Varicocoele: This happens when the veins get dilated due to the draining of theblood that starts from the testicles to the body. The sperm may beinjured in the process due to heat and increased blood. Thiscondition can be addressed by surgery.
Vasectomy:This is referred to as a birth control technique through surgerywhere the tubes that carry the sperm are cut. This is a simpleprocedure that can be done without scalpel and without confinement.
VasDeferens: this will carry the sperm from the epididymis to thetesticle. Thick muscles are located inside the tube to help move thesperm.
XanthineKidney Stones: There are different kinds of stones and
most are madefrom crystal molecules or can combine with other elements. Examplesof these are the Xanthine kidney stones. These stones areconsidered rare and can run in the family. These stones can bechecked using an x-ray and can be addressed by a special kind oftreatment procedure.
ZoneDiet: A diet primarily known for restricting the amount of caloriesbut offers the dieters the recommended levels of protein, fats andnutrients. This dieting plan is composed of three meals and twosnacks with the objective of maintaining the ideal protein andcarbohydrate ratio on a single day.
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